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SR10 242 coupled the chemical and dynamical equations to build a self-consistent model of ambipolar-diffusion-controlled collapse. Furthermore, SR10 calculated the visual extinction self-consistently with grain distribution in the core, whereas for simplicity we assumed a constant visual extinction, which will have an effect on the rates of photoreactions, particularly at the edge of the core.

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The temperature profiles are shown in Fig. The inside-out collapse model of Shu describes the protostellar phase and begins 22426 a singular isothermal sphere. This is because for such high and rapidly changing densities, the model of SR10 cannot converge on a solution.

This results in a large decrease in the line intensity during the collapse for all the CS lines considered.

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Plot of CS spectra for 1. This asymmetry develops because once the CEW has ira, the boundary of the core, there is no longer a static outer envelope. The collapse expansion wave CEW solution is a particular solution to this problem, which starts with the initial density distribution of a singular isothermal sphere and with an initial velocity of zero everywhere.

This conclusion is important because, for example, CS has been observed to be significantly depleted within dense cores e. It is possible, however, that photoreactions play a more significant role in the chemistry, particularly at larger radii where the material is less shielded. Line profiles are plotted for the same transitions iramm in Section 6. Material immediately above the collapsing inner region begins to fall, once the material beneath it has given way.


Thus, subject to caveats about possible degeneracies, these various characteristics may be useful in determining the dynamical structure and evolutionary status of low-mass infall regions. This is an approximate lambda-iteration code, which can be used for radiatively coupled clouds as is likely to be the case for the early stages of core collapsewhere the standard large velocity gradient LVG approximation is not appropriate.

In that paper they used a Monte Carlo approach and included layering of the ice, and found that the results were significantly different to the results obtained idam a simple rate equation approach.

View large Download slide. The gas temperature of the core, used for the chemical calculations, is 10 K.

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Since freeze-out is observed in several class 0 protostars which are thought to be collapsing, this presents a major inconsistency in the inside-out collapse model of star formation. However, at dust temperatures of 10—20 K, the dust emission only dominates the background continuum for frequencies of GHz so the lower frequency lines should be unaffected by this assumption.

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The regions outside the collapsing centre have an unchanged density and gravitational field, so they can maintain hydrostatic equilibrium and are unaffected. The ambipolar diffusion model does not suffer from this problem, because even when the core 24226 reached an advanced, centrally condensed state, there are still extended inward motions.

H 2 formation on dust grains is included, the rate of which is given by the rate that hydrogen atoms stick to the grain surface and react multiplied by 0. The fact that a negative kinetic temperature gradient is required in the inside-out collapse model but not in the ambipolar 2462 model is due to the different line formation processes: We have used the results for a core of a mass of 6. As a boundary condition, smmol assumes that the material within the inner radius is static and at a constant abundance.


Apart from H 2 formation, the only surface reactions that iraam are hydrogenation of certain unsaturated species and dissociative recombination of molecular ions. An electrical discharge to the ground is then imminent.

The thick solid line shows T ex for a constant kinetic temperature profile of 10 K, using the CS abundance profile of Fig. To test this theory, we have calculated the line profiles for CS at 10 5 yr using the temperature profiles described in Section 6.

Molecular depletion also occurs in the ambipolar diffusion model during the late stages of collapse, but the line profiles still exhibit a strong blue asymmetry due to extended infall. But no operational system is yet available.

This increase in intensity at these times is due to the increase in density of the core. This means that for the earlier stages of the collapse, the gas in our model should be more strongly coupled to the magnetic field, which would mean that there is more resistance to the collapse and the length of time spent at lower densities would increase, effectively introducing an almost static phase before the initiation of the collapse.

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For a bounded sphere, the solution breaks down once the CEW hits the boundary.

These are listed in Table 3. Could we store lightning current as a renewable energy? Investigating the effects of chemistry on molecular line profiles of infalling low-mass cores J.

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