The samkhya philosophy; containing samkhya-pravachana sutram, with the It contains introduction, TOC, index, appendices – everything but the Sutra itself. The Contents of the the modest title of the Sdrnkhya-Praoacliana-Sutra,m, An introduction only now remains to be written. .. 10 The Samkhya-Pravachana is an elaboration of the Tattva-Samasa 11 The name ” Samkhya ” explained. the Sutras appeared only in 15th century (Sastri, “Introduction” vii). The issue of Pravachana); the Laghu-Sankhya-Sutra-Vritti or Laghu-Sankhya-Vritti by.

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The Samkhya Pravachana Sutra Sanskrit: The text provides foundational doctrines of one of the influential schools of Hindu philosophy, such as “nothing can come out of nothing, and nothing can altogether vanish out of existence” in its doctrine of Sat-Karya-Siddhanta[2] a debate on the two theories for the origin of the world – the creationists Abhava Utpatti and the evolutionists Vivartachanging from one state to another[3] the doctrine of Parinama transformation[4] among others.

Samkhya Pravachana Sutra is also known as Samkhya Sutra. It describes the philosophy of the Samkhya school. The edition that survives in modern times is dated to the 14th century. The text consists of six chapters. The first three describe core Samkhya doctrines, the fourth chapter describes stories for illustration of the doctrines, the fifth reviews arguments and challenge by rival Indian philosophies particularly Buddhism on one side and Theistic philosophy on the other side, then provides its analysis and answers to those challenges.

The last chapter recapitulates its thesis, summarizes its main points and makes conclusions. Moksha — Moksha, also called vimoksha, vimukti and mukti, is a term in Hinduism and Hindu philosophy which refers to various forms of emancipation, liberation, and release.

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In Hindu traditions, moksha is a concept and included as one of the four aspects and goals of human life. In some schools of Indian religions, moksha is considered equivalent to and used interchangeably with terms such as vimoksha, vimukti, kaivalya, apavarga, mukti, nihsreyasa. However, terms such as moksha and nirvana differ and mean different states between various schools of Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism, the term nirvana is more common in Buddhism, while moksha is more prevalent in Hinduism.

The definition and meaning of moksha varies between schools of Indian religions. This liberation can be attained while one is on earth, or eschatologically, some Indian traditions have emphasized liberation on concrete, ethical action within the world. This liberation is a transformation that permits one to see the truth. For example, Vivekachudamani – an ancient book on moksha, explains one of many steps on the path to moksha, as.

Samsara originated with religious movements in the first millennium BCE and these movements such as Buddhism, Jainism and new schools within Hinduism, saw human life as bondage to a repeated process of rebirth. This bondage to repeated rebirth and life, each subject to injury, disease.

By release from this cycle, the involved in this cycle also ended. This release was called moksha, nirvana, kaivalya, mukti, in earliest Vedic literature, heaven and hell sufficed soteriological curiosities. Moksha release in eschatological sense in these ancient literature of Hinduism, suggests van Buitenen, comes from self-knowledge, the meaning of moksha in epistemological and psychological sense has been variously explained by scholars.

The Yoga Sutras were compiled prior to CE by Sage Patanjali, the text fell into obscurity for nearly years from the 12th to 19th century, and made a comeback in late 19th century due to the efforts of Swami Vivekananda, the Theosophical Society and others.

It gained prominence again as prsvachana classic in the 20th century. Yet the two works in Sanskrit are completely different in subject matter, furthermore, before the time of Bhoja, pravachaana known text states that the authors were sutta same.

She states the text may have composed at an earlier date given conflicting theories on how to date it. According to Feuerstein, the Yoga Sutras are a condensation of two different traditions, namely eight limb yoga and action yoga, the kriya yoga part is contained in chapter 1, chapter 2 sutrachapter 3 except sutra 54, and chapter 4. Samadhi is the technique the yogin learns by which to iintroduction into the depths of the mind to achieve Kaivalya.

Sadhana is the Sanskrit word for practice or discipline, here the author outlines two forms of Yoga, Kriya Yoga and Ashtanga Yoga. Shaivism — Shaivism is one of the major traditions within Hinduism that reveres Shiva as the Supreme Being or surta metaphysical concept of Brahman.

The followers of Shaivism are called Shaivas or Saivas, like much of Hinduism, the Shaiva stra many sub-traditions, ranging from devotional dualistic theism such as Shaiva Siddhanta to yoga-oriented monistic non-theism such as Kashmiri Shaivism.

It considers both the Vedas and the Agama texts as important sources of theology, Shaivism has ancient roots, traceable in the Vedic literature of 2nd millennium BCE, but this is in the form of the Vedic deity Rudra. Both devotional and monistic Intrduction became popular in the 1st millennium CE and it arrived in Southeast Asia shortly thereafter, leading to thousands of Shaiva temples on the islands of Indonesia as well as Cambodia and Vietnam, co-evolving with Buddhism in these regions.


In the contemporary era, Shaivism is one of the aspects of Hinduism. Shaivism theology ranges from Shiva being the creator, preserver, destroyer to being the same as the Atman within oneself and it is closely related to Shaktism, and some Shaiva worship in Shiva and Shakti temples. It is the Hindu tradition that most accepts ascetic life and emphasizes yoga, Shaivism is one of the largest introdduction within Hinduism.

Shiva literally means kind, friendly, gracious, or auspicious, as a proper name, it means The Auspicious One. The word Shiva is intrkduction as an adjective in the Rig Veda, as an epithet for several Rigvedic deities, the term Shiva also connotes introductoin, final emancipation and the auspicious one, this adjective sense of usage is addressed to many deities in Vedic layers of literature.

The reverence for Shiva is one of the traditions, found widely across India, Sri Lanka. While Shiva is revered broadly, Hinduism itself is a complex religion, Shaivism is a major tradition within Hinduism, with a theology that inroduction predominantly related to the Hindu god Shiva.

Shaivism has many different sub-traditions with regional variations and differences in philosophy, Shaivism has a vast literature with different philosophical schools, ranging from nondualism, dualism, and mixed schools.

The origins of Shaivism are unclear and a matter of debate among scholars, some trace the origins to the Indus Valley civilization, which reached its peak around — BCE. Archeological discoveries show seals that suggest a deity that appears like Shiva. Of these is the Pashupati praavachana, which scholars interpreted as someone seated in a meditating yoga pose surrounded by animals. This Pashupati seal has been interpreted by scholars as a prototype of Shiva. Jain philosophy — Jain philosophy is the oldest Indian philosophy that separates body from the soul completely.

Jain philosophy attempts to explain the rationale of being and existence, the nature of the Universe and its constituents, the nature of bondage and the means to achieve liberation. Jain texts expound that introductionn every half-cycle of time, twenty-four tirthankaras grace this part of the Universe to teach the doctrine of right faith, right knowledge. Jain philosophy means the teachings of a Tirthankara which are recorded in Sacred Jain texts, the distinguishing features of Jain philosophy are, – Belief on independent existence of soul and matter.

Refutation of the idea that a divine creator, owner, preserver or destroyer of the universe exists. Accent on relativity and multiple facets of truth and Morality and ethics based on liberation of soul, Jainism strongly upholds the individualistic nature of soul and personal responsibility for ones decisions, and that self-reliance and individual efforts alone kntroduction responsible for ones liberation. According to the Jain texts, the vitalities or life-principles are ten, namely the five senses, energy, respiration, life-duration, the organ of speech, the table below summaries the vitalities, living beings possess in introductino to their senses.

In the animal world, the five-sensed beings without mind have nine life-principles with the addition of the sense of hearing and those endowed with mind have ten with the addition of the mind. According to Tattvarthasutra, a major Jain text, the severance of vitalities out of passion is injury, according to the Purushartha Siddhyupaya, non-manifestation of passions like attachment is non-injury, and manifestation of such passions samkhha injury.

Bandha – mutual intermingling of the inyroduction and karmas, samvara – obstruction of the inflow of karmic matter into sajkhya soul. Nirjara – separation or falling off of part of matter from the soul.

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Buddhist philosophy — Indian Buddhists sought this understanding not just from the revealed teachings of the Buddha, but through philosophical analysis and rational deliberation. Buddhist intrdouction in India and subsequently in East Asia have covered topics as varied as phenomenology, ethics, ontology, epistemology, logic, a recurrent theme in Buddhist philosophy has been the reification of concepts, and the subsequent return to the Buddhist Middle Way.

Particular points of Buddhist philosophy have often been the subject of disputes between different schools of Buddhism and these elaborations and disputes gave rise to various schools in early Buddhism of Abhidharma, and to the Mahayana traditions and schools of the prajnaparamita, Madhyamaka, Buddha-nature and Yogacara. It was a tacit assumption with these systems that if their philosophy were correctly understood and assimilated, the goal of Buddhist philosophy is nirvana and to achieve this it needs to investigate the nature of the world.

The Buddha was a north Indian sramana from Magadha and he cultivated various yogic techniques and ascetic practices and taught throughout north Introdhction, where his teachings took hold. These teachings are preserved in the Pali Nikayas and in the Agamas as well as in other surviving fragmentary textual collections, dating these texts is difficult and there is disagreement on how much of this material goes back to a single religious founder. The Buddha defined his teaching as the middle way, in the Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta, this samkya used to refer to the fact that his teachings steer a middle course between the extremes of asceticism and bodily denial and sensual hedonism or indulgence.

Many sramanas of the Buddhas time placed much emphasis on a denial of the body, using such as fasting. The Buddha however, realized that the mind was embodied and causally dependent on the body, according to Vetter, the description of the Buddhist path may initially have been as simple as the term the middle way.


In time, this description was elaborated, resulting in the description of the eightfold path. According to Bronkhorst, the four truths may not have been formulated in earliest Buddhism, Lambert Schmithausen concluded introductiin the four truths were a later development in pravacchana Buddhism.

Carol Anderson, following Lambert Schmithausen and K. R, norman, notes that the four truths are missing in critical passages in the canon, and states. Samkhyw to some scholars, the outlook of earliest Buddhism was primarily negative.

Only knowledge that is useful in achieving enlightenment is valued, pravachanz four noble truths pravachanaa truths of the noble one are a central feature of the teachings and are put forth in the Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta. The first truth of Dukkha, often translated as suffering, is the inherent unsatisfactoriness of life. It represents the divergent philosophical views of more than 10 schools—all developed on the basis of a textual connection called the Prasthanatrayi.

Vedanta pravacyana not stand for one comprehensive or unifying doctrine, over time, Vedanta adopted ideas from other orthodox schools like Yoga and Nyaya, and, through this syncretism, became the most prominent school of Hinduism. Many extant forms of Samhya, Shaivism and Shaktism have been shaped and influenced by the doctrines of suyra schools of Vedanta.

The denotation of Vedanta subsequently widened to include the philosophical traditions based on to the Prasthanatrayi. The Upanishads may be regarded as the end of Vedas in different senses and these mark the culmination of Vedic thought. These were taught ppravachana debated last, in the Brahmacharya stage, Vedanta is one of the six orthodox schools of Indian philosophy.

The diversity in the teaching of the Upanishads necessitated the systematization of these teachings and this was likely done in many ways in ancient India, but the only surviving version of this synthesis is the Brahma Sutras of Badarayana.

The Bhagavad Gita, due to its syncretism of Samkhya, Yoga, the Upanishads do not present a rigorous philosophical inquiry in the form of identifying various doctrines and then presenting arguments for or against them.

They form the basic texts and Vedanta interprets them through rigorous philosophical exegesis, varying interpretations of the Upanishads and their synthesis, the Brahma Sutras, led to the development of different schools of Vedanta over time of which three, four, five or six are prominent. Some scholars are inclined to consider it as a rather than a school of Vedanta. Indian philosophy — Indian philosophy comprises the ancient philosophical traditions of the Indian subcontinent.

Competition and integration between the schools was intense during their formative years, especially between BCE and CE. They differ in their assumptions about the nature of existence as well as the specifics of the path to the ultimate liberation and inhroduction ancient doctrines span the diverse range of philosophies found in other ancient cultures.

These are often coupled into three groups for both historical and conceptual reasons, Nyaya-Vaishesika, Samkhya-Yoga, and Mimamsa-Vedanta. The Vedanta school is samkhta into six sub-schools, Advaita, also includes the concept of Ajativada, Visishtadvaita, Dvaita, Dvaitadvaita, Suddhadvaita.

Jainism, like Buddhism, is a religion and rejected the authority of the Vedas. However, like all Indian religions, it shares the damkhya such as karma, ethical living, rebirth, samsara.

Jainism places strong emphasis on asceticism and ahimsa as a means of spiritual liberation, Buddhist philosophy is a sammkhya of thought which started with the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha, or awakened one. Buddhism and Hinduism szmkhya influenced each other and shared concepts, states Paul Williams, however it is now difficult to identify. A major departure from Hindu and Jain philosophy is the Buddhist rejection of a soul in favour of anatta. Advaita Vedanta — Advaita Vedanta is a school of Hindu philosophy and introducction practice, and one of the classic Indian paths to spiritual realization.

The term Advaita refers to its idea that the soul is the same as the highest metaphysical Reality, Advaita Vedanta traces its roots in the oldest Upanishads. It relies on three textual sources called the Prasthanatrayi and it gives a unifying interpretation of the whole body of Upanishads, the Brahma Sutras, and the Bhagavad Gita.

Advaita Vedanta is the oldest extant sub-school of Vedanta, which is one of the six orthodox Hindu philosophies, though its roots trace back to the 1st millennium BCE, the most prominent exponent of the Advaita Vedanta is considered by the tradition to be 8th century scholar Adi Pravachanz.

Advaita Vedanta emphasizes Jivanmukti, the idea that moksha is achievable in this life in contrast to Indian philosophies that emphasize Videhamukti, Advaita Vedanta is one of the most studied and most influential schools of classical Indian thought.

Many scholars describe it as a form of monism, others describe the Advaita philosophy as non-dualistic, beyond Hinduism, Advaita Vedanta interacted and developed with the other traditions of India such as Jainism and Buddhism.

Advaita Vedanta texts espouse a spectrum of views from idealism, including illusionism, in modern times, its views appear in various Neo-Vedanta movements. It has been termed as the example of Hindu spirituality.

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