Il saggiatore (The assayer) by Galileo Galilei (–) is the final and most significant work in the polemic regarding the characteristics of. This is Galileo’s argument from “The Assayer,” which I encountered in both my history survey of modern philosophy and in metaphysics. Galileo. Galileo Galilei; Il Saggiatore (The Assayer); Rome, This quietly polemical text puts the case for a pared-down scientific conception of matter and a.

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In short, it follows that heat is a subjective or secondary quality asssayer only exists because our bodies can interpret the moving fire-particles through touch, as they pass through our bodies.

The Assayer, early state | galileo

If he puts it with distant objects, then he must conclude for it the same thing he concludes for the fixed stars; namely, slight enlargement. Assqyer Virginio Cesarini [1]. What I had in mind, though, was to suspend our argument and wait quietly until some new comet came along.

For next I ask him whether he places assayer moon in the class galioei “nearby” objects, or in that of “distant” ones? Indeed, we know that the Fleming who was first to invent the telescope was a simple maker of ordinary spectacles who, casually handling lenses of various sorts, happened to look through two at once, one convex and the other concave, and placed at different distances from the eye.

I believe that no gaalilei solid an existence belongs to many qualities which we have come to attribute to physical bodies-tastes, odors, colors, and many more. The former may strike upon a certain part of our bodies that is much more sensitive than the skin, which does not feel the invasion of such subtle matter.

Is it not astonishing that so many things have been reported to him which I never said, nor even thought, while not a single syllable reached him of other things that I have said over and over again?

On a lute, one string will do what many strings on a harp will do; for in fingering the lute the sound is drawn now from one part of the string and now from another, which is the same as lengthening and shortening it, and making of it different strings so far as relates to the production of sound. And perhaps which they never shall have.

Now how is this, Sig.

Mario Guiducci would be allowed to lecture in his Academy, carrying out the duties of his office there, and even to publish his Discourse on Comets without “Lothario Sarsi” a person never heard of before, jumping upon me for this.

They pointed out to me the familiar maxim that vulgarity and mediocrity receive little or no attention and are soon left in the cold, while men’s minds turn to the revelation of wonders and transcendent things-though these indeed may give rise in ill-tempered minds to envy, and thereby to slander.

And precisely by this difference we may measure the sensitivity of the assayer’s balance in [p. External means capable of thus ruffling the air are very numerous, but for the most part they may be reduced to the trembling of some body which pushes the air and tje it. Our senses show us that those which are not consumed at all by rubbing, such as two polished mirrors, are not heated by rubbing, either. Always, the mere presence of fire-particles alone will not create heat.


Let Sarsi see from this how superficial his philosophizing is, except in appearance. And since it is Guiducci’s statement that is correct, Sarsi interprets the other one by saying that if indeed motion, as motion, is not the cause of beat, nevertheless friction is not created without motion, so that at least derivatively we may say that motion is the cause. I pass over in silence the fact that these philosophers say that asaayer noise is produced by the asayer of wool or hemp, and require the percussion of solid bodies to make sound; and then again when it suits their purposes they assert that mists and clouds striking together will render the loudest of all sounds.

Works of Galileo Galilei, Part 3, Volume 15, Astronomy: The Assayer – World Digital Library

This happens because the skin on the ball of the assyaer is not smooth, but is marked with certain twisted lines which we use in sensing the slightest irregularity of objects by touch. I could illustrate with many more examples Nature’s bounty in tue her effects, as she employs means we could never think of without our senses and our experiences to teach them galilri us-and sometimes even these are insufficient to remedy our lack of understanding.

What Sarsi may have heard-but, from what I see, did not understand very well- was a certain experiment which I exhibited to some gentlemen there at Rome, and perhaps at the very house of Your Excellency, in partial gali,ei and partial refutation of the “third motion” [14] 14 attributed by Copernicus to the earth.

Here are Guiducci’s words: Now maybe I can actually gxlilei twitter occasionally. Tractable and benign indeed is such philosophy, so pleasantly and readily adapting itself to men’s needs and wishes! Views Read Edit View history. Now since a greater or less enlargement depends not upon the material of a telescope but upon its shape, the tube constitutes different instruments when the same material is used but the separation of the lenses is altered.

Did it never enter your head to tell us to try looking at stars? Now I make a very different forecast.

In my Starry Messenger there were revealed many new and marvelous discoveries in the heavens that should have gratified all lovers of true science; yet scarcely had it been printed when men sprang up everywhere who envied the praises belonging to the discoveries there revealed.

In The Assayer Galileo mainly criticized Grassi’s method of inquiry, heavily biased by his religious belief and based on ipse dixit, rather than his hypothesis on comets. Grassi argued from the apparent absence of observable parallax that comets move beyond the moon.

I realize that often those who go about in masks are low persons who attempt by disguise to gain esteem among gentlemen and scholars, utilizing the dignity that attends nobility for some purpose of their own. I am sure that he would admit our statement to be entirely different from the one which he refuted [13]. Galileo states that vision relates to light, but in a complicated way that he does not understand much about and even to explain what he does know would take too long, so he does not go further into this observation.

The Assayer

Attacking the first conclusion with great boldness, be says that to adsayer who once looked at the comet, no other argument is necessary to prove the nature of its light, for by comparison with other true lights it clearly showed itself to be real and not spurious. Thus the spiral is regular, and its definition originates in two uniform motions, one straight and the other circular.


Galileo then returns to his initial argument that heat is caused by motion. With regard to the production of sound those instruments are different which are of different sizes, not those which are of different materials. But poor as Galilwi am in courage and power, I am at least upright. Shoot ten arrows, or a hundred; and if it ever happens that on one of them the feathers so much as slightly tan-let alone its shaft taking fire or its steel tip melting- I shall not only concede the argument but forfeit your respect, which I regard so highly.

Anyone thd make a serious error if he said that the hand, in addition to the properties of moving and touching, possessed another faculty of “tickling,” as if tickling were a phenomenon that resided in the hand that tickled. Now let Sarsi imagine most assayef the sea on both sides to be removed, leaving only a breadth of two or three miles in the center, pointing toward the sun.

Before going on I wish to add gali,ei for Sarsi’s instruction. And this reasoning, easy as it is, I wish to reveal to Your Excellency, for if set forth where it is to the purpose it may by its simplicity reduce the incredulity of those who like Sarsi try to diminish whatever praise there may be in this that belongs gxlilei me.

There I wrote that in Venice, where I happened to be at the time, news arrived that a Fleming had presented to Count Maurice [of Nassau] a glass by means of which distant objects might be seen as distinctly as if they were nearby. Later it turned out that if the moon were magnified one thousand times, the fixed stars would be magnified nine hundred and ninety-nine, whereas to support your position they could not be allowed to be enlarged by even one-half.

Such things will keep an infinite number her of men occupied, and that man, will indeed be fortunate who, led by some unusual inner light, can turn from dark and confused labyrinths in which he might have gone galiei winding asxayer the crowd and becoming ever more entangled. A visit to Rome confirmed this. He adds, with a “get thee hence,” that I am seizing at trifles.

Now who is so simple-minded as not to understand that if we call a profit of one thousand ducats on a capital of one hundred ‘large,” and not “nil,” and the same upon a capital of ten “very large,” and not “nil,” then the acquisition of one thousand upon no capital at all should be called “infinite” rather than “nil”? You are commenting using your WordPress. But the live body which receives these operations feels different sensations according to the various places touched. If the ruffling goes on to form greater and greater waves, assayeg multitude of mirrors from which the image of the sun will be reflected assayef extend over wider and wider spaces.

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