FUNTUMIA ELASTICA PDF

Common Name: West African Rubber Tree. Funtumia elastica. Drawing of the leaves and flowers. Photograph by: Matilda Smith Public domain. Funtumia elastica (Preuss) Stapf [family APOCYNACEAE]. Common names. English West African rubber tree; Lagos silk rubber tree; bush rubber (Ghana. Description. Tree to 30 m tall; bole straight and cylindrical, crown narrow; bark brown to dark, thin, slightly fissured, becoming granular on old trees; Slash orange.

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Funtumia elastica

The rubber is of good quality compared with para rubber, but its yield is much smaller and plantations suffer much more from insect damage. West Indian Med J.

J Agric Food Chem. The average was based on expression in treated cells from 3 different calves and compared to their expression after uLPS middle and PBS left treatment.

Before the arrival of Funntumia rubber, this was the most promising rubber tree in many tropical regions, primarily in West Africa. Based on these and related studies, novel therapeutic protocols that focus on increasing the functional activity of this T cell population are being pursued in the clinic to combat infection and cancers [ 21 — 23 ].

Human gamma delta T cells recognize alkylamines derived from microbes, funtjmia plants, and tea: Immunomodulatory activity of acidic polysaccharides isolated from Tanacetum vulgare L. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. The bark contains a white elastixa which coagulates readily and produces about one-third of its weight of pure rubber. Associated Data Supplementary Materials Slight differences were detected between the 3 sub-fractions. In a peritonitis assay, C3H: Three separate experiments are shown, thin bar indicates mean, thick error bars represent SEM.

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Funtumia elastica (PROSEA) – PlantUse English

Differential production of interferon-gamma and interleukin-4 in response to Th1- and Th2-stimulating pathogens by gamma delta T cells in vivo. Interestingly, in models very similar to the peritonitis response we describe, such as an experimental sepsis model [ 48 ] and an E. Our data does not preclude the possibility that the relevant agonists in the plant bark are derived from commensal microbes endophytes associated with the plant.

Individual monosaccharide bands were scraped from the plate, extracted with H 2 O and quantified using a colorimetric method with monosaccharide standards.

Despite this exposure, therapeutic addition of Elastida induced rapid and robust beneficial cellular responses at the intestinal surface resulting in decreased CFU counts in feces.

Antigens in tea-beverage prime human Vgamma 2Vdelta 2 T cells in vitro and in vivo for memory and nonmemory antibacterial cytokine responses. Evidence for involvement of the gamma, delta T cell antigen receptor in cytotoxicity mediated by human alloantigen-specific T cell clones. Briefly PBMCs from human donors were labeled with 2. However, there is precedence for novel non-LPS, plant-derived polysaccharides that interact with TLR4 to drive monocyte responses and that result in non-TLR4-dependent T cell responses.

Twenty-four hours after infection, mice were euthanized and fecal pellets were collected. Open in a separate window. Adverse functions of ILA in experimental sepsis. Tree, up to 30 m tall with not straight, cylindrical, unbuttressed bole; bark pale with grey patches and dark brown twigs, containing white latex. Around there were large plantations in Ghana, Nigeria and Cameroon. The majority of in vitro macrophage activation exhibited by extracts of some immune enhancing botanicals is due to bacterial lipoproteins and lipopolysaccharides.

Immunoregulatory functions of gamma delta T cells. The carbohydrate elution profile was determined by the phenol-sulfuric acid H 2 SO 4 method [ 32 ], modified to a microplate format, and absorbance was measured at nm using a SpectraMax Plus microplate reader Molecular Devices, Palo Alto, CA.

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Electrophoretic analysis of heterogeneous lipopolysaccharides from various strains of Vibrio vulnificus biotypes 1 and 2 by silver staining and immunoblotting. Depletion of a gamma delta T cell subset can increase host resistance to a bacterial infection.

Animal models of asthma. Error bars represent SD. As a service to our customers we are providing this early version of the manuscript. J Allergy Clin Immunol. Introduction Herbal products have been epastica as effective treatments for millennia and their use is increasing rapidly, yet in many cases their safety and specific funfumia of action are not well defined.

Where presented, statistical significance was calculated using an unpaired, one-tailed t-test in Prism 5 GraphPad, Inc. Support Center Support Center. Author manuscript; available in PMC Oct 1. Thus, related polysaccharides of various sizes comprise the Yam-I fraction. Bradley Jones, University of Iowa for use in an enterocolitis model of ST infection involving pretreatment with streptomycin [ 33 ].

In Africa some parts of the tree are also used medicinally: Dittmer U, Olbrich AR. Asthma is considered a T H 2 cell-mediated disease, and treatments that increase T H 1 responses can be effective in alleviating symptoms [ 54 ].

Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties of Funtumia elastica.

Seed fusiform, about 1. GraffEmily M.

HeJ mice Figure 5C, D. Thin bar indicates mean, thick error bars represent SEM. Jameson J, Havran WL. Am J Respir Cell Mol.

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