BAZAT E MARKETINGUT PDF
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Chapter 7 Segmentimi dhe Pozicionimi në Marketing
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Steps in Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 6. Market segmentation is the process of dividing a market into distinct groups of buyers who might require separate products or marketing mixes.
All buyers have unique needs and wants. Still it is usually possible in consumer markets to identify relatively homogeneous portions or segments of the total market according to shared preferences, attitudes, or behaviors that distinguish them from the rest of the market.
Bazat e Marketingut
Market targeting is the process of evaluating each market segment’s attractiveness and selecting one or more segments to enter. Given effective market segmentation, the firm must choose which markets to serve and how to serve them.
In targeting markets to serve the firm must consider its resources and objectives in setting strategy. Market positioning is the process of formulating competitive positioning for a product and a detailed marketing marietingut.
Marketers must plan how to present the product to the consumer. The product’s position is defined by how consumers view it on important attributes.
Develop Positioning for Each Target Segment 4. Select Target Segment s Market Targeting 3. Develop Measures of Segment Attractiveness 2. Identify Bases for segmenting the Marketing. Geographic segmentation divides the market into different geographic units based upon physical proximity.
While location determines how geographic segmentation is done, it is also true that many consumer products have attribute differences associated with regional tastes. Dividing the market into groups based upon variables such as sex, age, family size, family life cycle, income, education, occupation, religious affiliation, or nationality are all demographic segmentations.
Consumer needs often vary with demographic variables. Demographic information is also relatively easy to measure. Age and life-cycle stage, sex, and income are three major demographic bases for segmentation. Psychographic Segmentation divides the market into groups based on social class, life style, or personality characteristics. Madketingut segmentation cuts across demographic differences. Social class preferences reflect values and preferences that marketingt constant even as income increases.
Life style describes helps group markets around ideas such as health, youthful, or environmentally conscious. Personalities may transcend other differences in markets and may be transferred to products themselves.
Behavioral Segmentation divides markets into groups based on their knowledge, attitudes, uses, or responses to a product. Types of of behavioral segmentation are based upon occasions, benefits sought, user status, usage rates, loyalty, buyer readiness stage, and attitude. Age, gender, family size and life cycle, or income Psychographic Social class, lifestyle, or personality Behavioral Occasions, benefits, uses, or responses. Analizo Shitjen, Shkallen e rritjes, dhe profitin e parashikuar aility.
Segment Structural Attractiveness Consider effects of: Aftesite dhe resorset e Firmes ne relacion me segmentet Look for Competitive Advantages. The company must collect and analyze data on current dollar sales, projected sales-growth, and expected profit margins for each market marketongut. Long run attractiveness includes an assessment of current and potential competitors, the threats of substitutes, and the power of buyers and suppliers.
Company Objectives and Resources.
Industry segmentation focuses on which industries buy the product. Company size can be used. Geographic location may be used to group businesses by proximity. Business markets can be segmented by technology what customer technologies should we focus on? Five approaches are possible. Segmentation can be by purchasing function organization centralized or decentralizedpower structure selecting companies controlled by a functional specialtythe nature of existing relationships current desirable customers or new desirable customersgeneral purchase policies focus on companies that prefer some arrangements over others such as leasing, related support service contracts, sealed bidsor purchasing criteria focus on noncompensatory criteria such as price, service, or quality.
Situational segmentation may be based upon urgency such as quick delivery needsspecific application specific uses for the product or size of order few large or many small accounts. Personal comparisons can lead to segmentation by buyer-seller similarity companies with similar personnel and valuesattitudes toward risk focus on risk-taking or risk-avoiding companiesor loyalty focus on companies that show high loyalty to their suppliers.
This works well when proximity is the critical segmentation variable. Countries might be grouped by population income levels or by overall level of economic development. Political and Legal Factors. Segmentation may be most appropriate in terms of the level of government stability, monetary regulations, receptivity to foreign firms, or the amount of bureaucracy encountered when conducting business.
Segmentation by common d, religion, or values might be the best way to proceed. This involves narketingut segments of consumer who marketinugt similar needs and buying behavior even though they are located in different countries.
Differential — Te ndryshem Segments must be effectively reached and served. Requirements for Effective Segmentation Measurability. This refers to the degree to which the size and purchasing power of the segments can be measured.
Chapter 7 Segmentimi dhe Pozicionimi në Marketing – ppt video online download
The accuracy and availability of measures of market potential are important. This refers to the degree to which a market segment can be reached and served. Identifying a segment is useless if the marketer has limited access to the customer.
This refers to the degree to markefingut the segments are large or profitable enough to service. This is the degree to which an effective marketing program can be designed for attracting and serving segments. Company resource limitations figure prominently in actionability issues. Markettingut must be large or profitable enough to serve. Must be marketinbut to attract and serve the segments.
In mass marketing, the seller produces, mass distributes, and mass promotes markrtingut product to all buyers. The baaat for mass marketing is that it [should] lead marketinguy the lowest costs through economies of scale and prices and create the largest potential market. Here the seller identifies market segments, selects one or more of them, and develops products and marketing mixes tailored to meeting the needs of those selected segments.
As more competitors adopt this practice, fragmentation of the market leads to Niche Marketing. Here the seller focuses on subgroups within market segments who may seek a special combination of benefits. This is the practice of tailoring products and marketing programs to suit the tastes of specific individuals and locations. This strategy uses the same marketing mix for the entire market. This strategy focuses on the common needs of the market rather bazzt differences in it.
Undifferentiated marketing provides economies of scale on product costs but may be limited in application. This strategy targets several market segments and designs separate marketing mixes for each of them. Product and marketing variation also helps company image and may produce loyalty in consumers as they change segments. This strategy commits marketinbut company to pursue a large share of one or more submarkets.
Economies and segment knowledge and service are strengths of this approach but risk due to smaller market size is greater. Differentiated Marketing Segment 3 C.
Chapter Seven Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning: Objectives Be able to define the three steps of target marketing: Learning Goals Learn the three steps of target marketing, market segmentation, target marketing, and market positioning Understand the major bases for. Chapter Six Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning: Building the Right Relationships with the Right Customers.