ASTM A384 PDF
This standard is issued under the fixed designation A/AM; the number 1 This practice is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A05 on Metallic-. In all cases only the current version of the standard as published by ASTM is to be considered the official document. Designation: A – 76 (Reapproved ) . ASTM A – A M – 02 – Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online.
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This abstract is a brief summary of the referenced standard. Link to Active This link will always awtm to the current Active version of the standard. Thls stendard Is subject to revision at any tlme by the responsible technical commHtee and must be reviewed every five years and H not revised, either reapproved or withdrawn.
Additionally, the installation of asm members should be asmt after galvanizing. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards and should be addressed to ASTM Headquarters. Inch pounds and SI units are not necessarily exact equivalents. It is informational only and not an official part of the standard; the full text of the standard itself must be referred to for its use and application.
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Oftentimes sheet or plate can be returned to a flattened state using a jig or by weighing the product down on a flat surface during the atsm.
Optimize Welding Before Hot-Dip Galvanizing Welding results in significant residual stress in small areas of an assembly due to the extreme temperature differences experienced.
Therefore, steel thicknesses should vary as little as possible throughout the assembly. After galvanizing, these products should be air cooled instead of quenched to minimize induced stress from the cooling cycle.
Clamps may be applied to prevent shifting or movement during the welding operation. The following can cause warpage and distortion: Current edition approved Oct.
Specify symmetrically rolled sections instead of angle or channel a3884. Minimize Thick and Thin Material in the Same Assembly When two steels of different thicknesses are assembled and brought up to galvanizing temperature, the thinner steel heats up and expands more quickly than the thicker steel.
Where excessive cold working or tight bend radii cannot be avoided, the product should be stress relieved per the guidelines provided within ASTM A, Section 6. A superscript epsilon E indicates xstm editorial change since the last revision or reapproval. This specification deals with safeguarding against warpage and distortion during hot-dip galvanizing of steel assemblies. Steel invariably contains internal stresses induced at the mill from rolling operations used to bring structures, plate, and sheet to the final thickness.
In the case of sheet metal, the product which has a right-angle bend astj the sheet metal itself will remain flatter and be freer from distortion if the radius of the bend is as large as practicable. It is recommended that welding procedures be asfm out in conformancewith the pertinent specificationsof the American Welding Society.
Channels and other nonsymmetrical sections should be avoided for the framework of a sheet metal assembly that is to be hot-dip galvanized whenever it is possible to use symmetrical shapes or sections.
Welding results in significant residual stress in small areas of an assembly due to the extreme temperature differences experienced. Historical Version s – view previous versions of standard.
Where welding before sstm cannot be avoided, the internal stresses in the connections can be minimized by avoiding joint designs or weld lengths which are greater than statically required, and by placing welds near to and symmetrically around the neutral axis – aligning welds so that shrinkage and opposing forces are balanced rather than all pulling in the same direction. The following displays various methods to reduce or eliminate the potential for warpage and distortion. In welding any intermediate lengths along one side of a common member, care should be taken to prevent warpage of the common member due to the application of high heat on the same side at various intervals along its length.
When two steels of different thicknesses are assembled and brought up to galvanizing temperature, the thinner steel heats up and expands more quickly than the thicker steel.
In nearly every case, regardless of size, channels require straightening after galvanizing. If the angie steel frame and sheets are punched prior to galvanizing the recommended procedurethe use of drift pins to bring the holes into alignment should be avoided as far as possible at the time the sheets a834 frame are assembled. Symmetrical sections such as Aatm and tubing will be less likely to distort than asymmetrical xstm camber beams, channels, tees, custom beams, girders because the thermal expansion forces above and below the natural axes satm each other.
A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval.
ASTM A384 Recommendations
Referenced Documents purchase separately The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard. All efforts should be made to keep the stresses in the construction as low as possible right from the beginning to enable the steel to absorb the internal stresses completely.
Originally published as A – 55 T. These rivets can be countersunk or flat head if the protruding head of the ordinary button or round head rivet is objectionable. Avoid Susceptible Thin Sheet Steels Steel invariably contains internal stresses induced at the mill from rolling operations used to bring structures, plate, and sheet to the final thickness.
ASTM does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents of this abstract are accurate, complete or up to date. Wherever possible, galvanize thick and thin portions separately and join them after galvanizing.
Practice ASTM A provides guidance on safeguarding against warpage and distortion for optimum hot-dip galvanizing and shall be complied with in both design and fabrication.
Factors in Warpage and Distortion 3. Common distorted and warped members of assemblies are sheets or plates ast, by welding or riveting. Asymmetrical Design Symmetrical sections such as I-beams and tubing will be less likely to distort than asymmetrical pieces camber beams, channels, tees, custom beams, girders because the thermal expansion forces above and below the natural axes balance each other.
Necessary precautions to fabricate properly and prepare the material for galvanizing to prevent embrittlement are described in Practice A